An internationally coordinated Project, Argo is a crucial component of the ongoing efforts world over, in enhancing climate predictability.

  • Argo and World Climate Research Programme : The Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) is the most recent and broadest component of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) aimed at extending the range and accuracy of seasonal and inter-annual climate prediction through the collection and analysis of observations as well as development and application of models of the coupled climate system. Ocean observations are essential for the coupled model development that starts with basic atmospheric model and increasing the complexity in step-wise fashion with the addition of models for land, the ocean, sea ice, aerosols, the carbon cycle and atmospheric chemistry. The CLIVAR Upper Ocean Panel endorsed in April 1998, Argo as an important element of CLIVAR observations.

  • Argo and Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment : The Global Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) emphasizes integration of remote and direct data streams, and use of models and data assimilation to draw maximum benefit from the observations for generation of products and services leading to societal benefits. In January of 1998, GODAE recognized Argo as fundamental to its requirement for global ocean observations in support of global data assimilating models.

  • Argo and Global Ocean/Climate Observing Systems : Argo is a major pilot Project of Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). GOOS is part of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) in which the UN agencies (UNESCO and its IOC; WMO, UNEP and FAO) are working together with the ICSU and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS).

    The design of GOOS addresses two broad realms viz.

    (i) Oceans and Climate
    (ii) Coastal Ocean.

    The Ocean Observation Panel on Climate (OOPC) of GOOS has identified a variety of objectives and applications in the development of an ocean observation system. The objectives include monitoring and detection of climate change, seasonal to inter-annual climate prediction, marine and weather forecasts, short-range ocean forecasts, understanding decadal variations, routine ocean state determination and scientific research. The Climate module of GOOS is the Ocean module of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) of WMO. Implementation of an operational, integrated ocean observing and data management system for climate is addressed through a reinforcing strategy, under a newly set up establishment i.e. the Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM).

  • Argo as a complementary data source to Satellite Observations : Satellites provide synoptic and repetitive information on many oceanic and coastal parameters at macro level using sensors such as

    (i) Radiometers in the optical and near Infra Red region (Ocean Colour Monitor)
    (ii) Microwave and Thermal Infrared Radiometer
    (iii) Scatterometer
    (iv) Altimeter and
    (v) Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    The sensors onboard these satellites address ocean surface topography, ocean wind vectors, ocean biology, surface carbon flux, geoid, sea ice, sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity. Significant resources have been committed by various countries for development, operation and sustenance of ocean observation satellite systems such as NOAA, ERS, RADARSAT, GEOSAT, DMSP-SSM/I, ADEOS, TOPEX-POSEIDON, JERS, SEA STAR (SEAWIFS), IRS, INSAT/METSAT, OCEANSAT, NPOES SERIES, ENVISAT, METOP, JASON, QUIKSCAT, MEGHA TROPIQUES, RISAT and EOS. Argo data is complementary to the satellite observations for oceanographic research and operational oceanography in the future..The complementary nature of Argo data with the Satellite Altimeter to provide a dynamically complete description of the Sea Surface Height is a case in point.


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